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Large-scale rubber plantations began in the early 20th century. By the end of the 19th century, a new educated social class transcending race and caste arose through British attempts to staff the Ceylon Civil Service and the legal, educational, and medical professions.

Buddhist and Hindu revivalism reacted against Christian missionary activities. In , major Sinhalese and Tamil political organisations united to form the Ceylon National Congress, under the leadership of Ponnambalam Arunachalam , [] pressing colonial masters for more constitutional reforms.

But without massive popular support, and with the governor's encouragement for "communal representation" by creating a "Colombo seat" that dangled between Sinhalese and Tamils, the Congress lost momentum towards the mids.

This step was strongly criticised by the Tamil political leadership, who realised that they would be reduced to a minority in the newly created State Council of Ceylon , which succeeded the legislative council.

However, this demand was not met by the Soulbury reforms of — The Soulbury constitution ushered in dominion status , with independence proclaimed on 4 February Senanayake became the first Prime Minister of Ceylon.

A countrywide popular demonstration against withdrawal of the rice ration, known as Hartal , resulted in the resignation of prime minister Dudley Senanayake.

Bandaranaike was elected prime minister in His three-year rule had a profound impact through his self-proclaimed role of "defender of the besieged Sinhalese culture".

Although partially reversed in , the bill posed a grave concern for the Tamil community, which perceived in it a threat to their language and culture.

The Federal Party FP launched a movement of non-violent resistance satyagraha against the bill, which prompted Bandaranaike to reach an agreement Bandaranaike—Chelvanayakam Pact with S.

Chelvanayakam , leader of the FP, to resolve the looming ethnic conflict. The bill, together with various government colonisation schemes , contributed much towards the political rancour between Sinhalese and Tamil political leaders.

During her second term as prime minister, the government instituted socialist economic policies, strengthening ties with the Soviet Union and China , while promoting a policy of non-alignment.

In , Ceylon experienced a Marxist insurrection , which was quickly suppressed. In , the country became a republic named Sri Lanka, repudiating its dominion status.

Prolonged minority grievances and the use of communal emotionalism as an election campaign weapon by both Sinhalese and Tamil leaders abetted a fledgling Tamil militancy in the north during the s.

The government of J. Jayawardene swept to power in , defeating the largely unpopular United Front government. It made Sri Lanka the first South Asian country to liberalise its economy.

An LTTE attack on 13 soldiers resulted in the anti-Tamil race riots in July , allegedly backed by Sinhalese hard-line ministers, which resulted in more than , Tamil civilians fleeing the island, seeking asylum in other countries.

Lapses in foreign policy resulted in India strengthening the Tigers by providing arms and training. The Asian tsunami killed over 35, in Sri Lanka.

Both LTTE and the government resumed fighting in , and the government officially backed out of the ceasefire in The exact number of Tamils killed is still a speculation that needs further study.

In March , people had been killed in one day and at least another 1, injured. The report was based only on those casualties brought to the hospital.

The UN described the situation as a "bloodbath", and one that its Colombo office had been warning against for some time. Their spokesperson Gordon Weiss said that over children had been killed over the weekend in the "large-scale killing of civilians".

According to the Ministry of Resettlement, most of the displaced persons had been released or returned to their places of origin, leaving only 6, in the camps as of December According to Hindu mythology , a land bridge existed between the Indian mainland and Sri Lanka.

It now amounts to only a chain of limestone shoals remaining above sea level. Sri Lanka has rivers. The coastline and adjacent waters support highly productive marine ecosystems such as fringing coral reefs and shallow beds of coastal and estuarine seagrasses.

Sri Lanka has 45 estuaries and 40 lagoons. The climate is tropical and warm, due to the moderating effects of ocean winds. Rainfall pattern is influenced by monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal.

The "wet zone" and some of the windward slopes of the central highlands receive up to 2, millimetres Periodic squalls occur and sometimes tropical cyclones bring overcast skies and rains to the southwest, northeast, and eastern parts of the island.

Humidity is typically higher in the southwest and mountainous areas and depends on the seasonal patterns of rainfall.

An increase in average rainfall coupled with heavier rainfall events has resulted in recurrent flooding and related damages to infrastructure, utility supply and the urban economy.

Lying within the Indomalayan realm , Sri Lanka is one of 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. Flowering acacias flourish on the arid Jaffna Peninsula.

Among the trees of the dry-land forests are valuable species such as satinwood , ebony , ironwood , mahogany and teak. The wet zone is a tropical evergreen forest with tall trees, broad foliage, and a dense undergrowth of vines and creepers.

Subtropical evergreen forests resembling those of temperate climates flourish in the higher altitudes. Yala National Park in the southeast protects herds of elephant, deer , and peacocks.

The Wilpattu National Park in the northwest, the largest national park, preserves the habitats of many water birds such as storks , pelicans , ibis , and spoonbills.

The untapped genetic potential of Sinharaja flora is enormous. The total vegetation density, including trees, shrubs, herbs and seedlings, has been estimated at , individuals per hectare.

The Minneriya National Park borders the Minneriya tank , which is an important source of water for numerous elephants Elephus maximus inhabiting the surrounding forests.

Dubbed "The Gathering", the congregation of elephants can be seen on the tank-bed in the late dry season August to October as the surrounding water sources steadily disappear.

The park also encompasses a range of micro-habitats which include classic dry zone tropical monsoonal evergreen forest, thick stands of giant bamboo, hilly pastures patanas.

Sri Lanka is home to over types of resident birds see List. It has declared several bird sanctuaries including Kumana.

Sri Lanka is the oldest democracy in Asia. In , the Soulbury Commission was appointed to draft a new constitution.

During this time, struggle for independence was fought on "constitutionalist" lines under the leadership of D. The Soulbury constitution ushered in Dominion status and granted independence to Sri Lanka in As of July , the number of registered political parties in the country is The UNP, established by D.

Senanayake in , was until recently the largest single political party. Ponnambalam , the Tamil nationalist counterpart of S. Objecting to Ponnambalam's cooperation with D.

Senanayake, a dissident group led by S. Following a period of turbulence as Tamil militants rose to power in the late s, these Tamil political parties were succeeded in October by the Tamil National Alliance.

Sri Lanka is a democratic republic and a unitary state which is governed by a semi-presidential system , with a mixture of a presidential system and a parliamentary system.

The amendment of certain basic features such as the clauses on language, religion, and reference to Sri Lanka as a unitary state require both a two-thirds majority and approval in a nationwide referendum.

For administrative purposes, Sri Lanka is divided into nine provinces [] and twenty-five districts. Provinces There have been provinces in Sri Lanka since the 19th century, but they had no legal status until when the 13th Amendment to the constitution established provincial councils after several decades of increasing demand for a decentralisation of the Government of Sri Lanka.

Some of its functions had been undertaken by central government ministries, departments, corporations, and statutory authorities, [] but authority over land and police is not as a rule given to provincial councils.

Now each province is administered by a directly elected provincial council:. Districts and local authorities Sri Lanka is also divided into 25 districts.

The districts are further subdivided into divisional secretariats , and these, in turn, to approximately 14, Grama Niladhari divisions.

A government agent , who is known as District Secretary , administers a district. There are three other types of local authorities: Municipal Councils 18 , Urban councils 13 and Pradeshiya Sabha, also called Pradesha Sabhai These Divisional Secretariats are currently administered by a 'Divisional Secretary'.

While ensuring that it maintains its independence, Sri Lanka has cultivated relations with India. One of the two parties that have governed Sri Lanka since its independence, the United National Party , has traditionally favoured links with the West, while its left-leaning counterpart, the Sri Lanka Freedom Party , has favoured links with the East.

The two countries signed an important Rice-Rubber Pact in The Bandaranaike government of significantly changed the pro-western policies set by the previous UNP government.

It recognised Cuba under Fidel Castro in Since independence in , the primary focus of the armed forces has been internal security, crushing three major insurgencies, two by Marxist militants of the JVP and a year-long conflict with the LTTE.

The armed forces have been in a continuous mobilised state for the last 30 years. The Sri Lankan Armed Forces have engaged in United Nations peacekeeping operations since the early s, contributing forces to permanent contingents deployed in several UN peacekeeping missions in Chad , Lebanon , and Haiti.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, Sri Lanka became a plantation economy famous for its production and export of cinnamon , rubber , and Ceylon tea , which remains a trademark national export.

Colonial plantations were dismantled, industries were nationalised, and a welfare state established. In , the free market economy was introduced to the country incorporating privatisation , deregulation , and the promotion of private enterprise.

While the production and export of tea, rubber, coffee, sugar, and other commodities remain important, industrialisation has increased the importance of food processing , textiles , telecommunications , and finance.

The country's main economic sectors are tourism , tea export , clothing , rice production, and other agricultural products.

In addition to these economic sectors, overseas employment, especially in the Middle East , contributes substantially in foreign exchange.

The per capita income of Sri Lanka has doubled since The Global Competitiveness Report , published by the World Economic Forum , has described Sri Lanka's economy as transitioning from the factor-driven stage to the efficiency-driven stage and that it ranks 52nd in global competitiveness.

Sri Lanka ranks 5th in the World Giving Index , registering high levels of contentment and charitable behaviour in its society.

Sri Lanka's road network consists of 35 A-Grade highways and two controlled-access highways E01 and E The port at Trincomalee is the fifth largest natural harbour in the world; during World War II, the British stated that they could place their entire navy in the harbour with room to spare.

With a grant of 20 million dollars from the US and help from China, a space academy has been set up for the purpose of developing an indigenous space sector to launch satellites of other nations as well as of Sri Lanka.

This dual use of launching technology will also serve to develop missile technology. On 26 September China launched Sri Lanka's first satellite, with plans for more launches in the coming years.

Since early , domestic debt increased by 12 percent and external debt by 25 percent. The agency's evaluation for the first tranche was cautiously optimistic about the future.

Under the program Sri Lankan government implemented a new Inland Revenue Act and an automatic fuel pricing formula which were noted by the IMF in its fourth review.

Sri Lanka is the 57th most populated nation in the world, [5] with roughly 21,, people, and an annual population growth rate of 1.

Sri Lanka has a birth rate of Sinhalese constitute the largest ethnic group in the country, with Sri Lankan Tamils are the second major ethnic group in the island, with a percentage of Sri Lankan Moors comprise 9.

Tamils of Indian origin were brought into the country as indentured labourers by British colonists to work on estate plantations.

There are also small ethnic groups such as the Burghers of mixed European descent and Malays from Southeast Asia. Moreover, there is a small population of Vedda people who are believed to be the original indigenous group to inhabit the island.

Sinhala and Tamil are the two official languages of Sri Lanka. English is widely used for education, scientific and commercial purposes.

Members of the Burgher community speak variant forms of Portuguese Creole and Dutch with varying proficiency, while members of the Malay community speak a form of Creole Malay that is unique to the island.

Religion in Sri Lanka census [] []. Sri Lanka is a multi-religious country. Sri Lanka has the longest continuous history of Buddhism of any predominantly Buddhist nation, [] with the Sangha having existed in a largely unbroken lineage since its introduction in the 2nd century BCE.

During periods of decline, the Sri Lankan monastic lineage was revived through contact with Thailand and Burma. Hinduism is the second most prevalent religion in Sri Lanka and predates Buddhism.

Islam is the third most prevalent religion in the country, having first been brought to the island by Arab traders over the course of many centuries, starting around the 7th century CE.

Most Muslims are Sunni who follow the Shafi'i school. Christianity reached the country through Western colonists in the early 16th century.

Sri Lankan Tamil Catholics attribute their religious heritage to St. Francis Xavier as well as Portuguese missionaries. The remaining Christians are evenly split between the Anglican Church of Ceylon and other Protestant denominations.

There is also a small population of Zoroastrian immigrants from India Parsis who settled in Ceylon during the period of British rule, [] but this community has steadily dwindled in recent years.

The Buddhist majority observe Poya Days each month according to the Lunar calendar , and Hindus and Muslims also observe their own holidays.

Colombo Kandy. Galle Jaffna. Sri Lankans have a life expectancy of The universal "pro-poor" [] health care system adopted by the country has contributed much towards these figures.

Sri Lanka ranks first among southeast Asian countries with respect to commitment of suicide , with 33 deaths per , persons. According to the Department of Census and Statistics, poverty, destructive pastimes and inability to cope with stressful situations, are the main causes behind the high suicide rates.

With a literacy rate of The free education system established in , [] is a result of the initiative of C. Kannangara and A. Kannangara led the establishment of the Madhya Maha Vidyalayas Central Schools in different parts of the country in order to provide education to Sri Lanka's rural children.

However, in the s changes to this system saw the separation of the administration of schools between the central government and the provincial government.

Thus the elite National Schools are controlled directly by the Ministry of Education and the provincial schools by the provincial government. Sri Lanka has approximately government schools, private schools and Pirivenas.

Sri Lanka has 15 public universities. The late British science fiction author Arthur C. Sri Lanka has an extensive road network for inland transportation.

E-grade highways are the latest addition to Sri Lanka's road network. A and B grade roads are national arterial highways administered by Road Development Authority.

The other roads are local roads falling under local government authorities. The rail network of Sri Lanka consists of main lines, coastal lines, and up-country lines.

The Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation formerly Radio Ceylon is the oldest-running radio station in Asia, [] established in by Edward Harper just three years after broadcasting began in Europe.

Since the s, many private radio stations have also been introduced. Broadcast television was introduced to the country in when the Independent Television Network was launched.

Initially, all Television stations were state-controlled, but private television networks began broadcasts in As of [update] , 51 newspapers 30 Sinhala, 10 Tamil, 11 English are published and 34 TV stations and 52 radio stations are in operation.

Officially, the constitution of Sri Lanka guarantees human rights as ratified by the United Nations. A report by an advisory panel to the UN secretary-general has accused both the LTTE and the Sri Lankan government of alleged war crimes during final stages of the civil war.

The UN Human Rights Council has documented over 12, named individuals who have undergone disappearance after detention by security forces in Sri Lanka, the second highest figure in the world since the Working Group came into being in Allegations of human rights abuses have not ended with the close of the ethnic conflict.

After her visit, she said: "The war may have ended [in Sri Lanka], but in the meantime democracy has been undermined and the rule of law eroded.

She also said that, while in Sri Lanka, she had been allowed to go wherever she wanted, but that Sri Lankans who came to meet her were harassed and intimidated by security forces.

In , the UK charity Freedom from Torture reported that it had received referrals of torture survivors from Sri Lanka for clinical treatment or other services provided by the charity.

In the same year, Freedom from Torture published Out of the Silence , which documents evidence of torture in Sri Lanka and demonstrates that the practice has continued long after the end of the civil war in May On 29 July , Human Rights Watch said that the Sri Lanka government has targeted lawyers, human rights defenders, and journalists to suppress criticism against government.

The culture of Sri Lanka dates back over years. In more recent times, the British colonial culture has also influenced the locals.

Sri Lanka claims a democratic tradition matched by few other developing countries. The first Tamil immigration was probably around the 3rd century BC.

The rich cultural traditions shared by all Sri Lankan cultures is the basis of the country's long life expectancy, advanced health standards and high literacy rate.

Dishes include rice and curry, pittu , kiribath , wholemeal roti , string hoppers , wattalapam a rich pudding of Malay origin made of coconut milk , jaggery, cashew nuts , eggs, and spices including cinnamon and nutmeg , kottu , and hoppers.

Traditionally food is served on a plantain leaf or lotus leaf. Middle Eastern influences and practices are found in traditional Moor dishes, while Dutch and Portuguese influences are found with the island's Burgher community preserving their culture through traditional dishes such as Lamprais rice cooked in stock and baked in a banana leaf , Breudher Dutch Holiday Biscuit , and Bolo Fiado Portuguese-style layer cake.

Christians celebrate Christmas on 25 December to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ and Easter to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus.

The movie Kadawunu Poronduwa The broken promise , produced by S. Ranmuthu Duwa Island of treasures, marked the transition cinema from black-and-white to colour.

It in the recent years has featured subjects such as family melodrama , social transformation and the years of conflict between the military and the LTTE.

In , movie attendance rose to an all-time high, but has been in steady decline since then. An influential filmmaker is Lester James Peiris , who has directed a number of movies which led to global acclaim, including Rekava Line of destiny, , Gamperaliya The changing village, , Nidhanaya The treasure, and Golu Hadawatha Cold heart, His work is published in Sinhala and English.

Similarly, naturalised - Canadian Michael Ondaatje , is well known for his English-language novels and three films. The earliest music in Sri Lanka came from theatrical performances such as Kolam , Sokari and Nadagam.

The first music album, Nurthi , recorded in , was released through Radio Ceylon founded in There are three main styles of Sri Lankan classical dance.

They are, the Kandyan dances , low country dances and Sabaragamuwa dances. Of these, the Kandyan style, which flourished under kings of the Kingdom of Kandy , is more prominent.

It is a sophisticated form of dance, [] that consists of five sub-categories: Ves dance , Naiyandi dance , Udekki dance , Pantheru dance and 18 Vannam.

The history of Sri Lankan painting and sculpture can be traced as far back as to the 2nd or 3rd century BC. The chronicles have description of various paintings in relic-chambers of Buddhist stupas, and in monastic residence.

Theatre moved into the country when a Parsi theatre company from Mumbai introduced Nurti , a blend of European and Indian theatrical conventions to the Colombo audience in the 19th century.

Sri Lankan literature spans at least two millennia, and is heir to the Aryan literary tradition as embodied in the hymns of the Rigveda.

According to the German philosopher Wilhelm Geiger , the chronicles are based on Sinhala Atthakatha commentary , that dates few more centuries back.

Martin Wickramasinghe , the author of Madol Doova is considered the iconic figure of Sri Lankan literature. While the national sport in Sri Lanka is volleyball , by far the most popular sport in the country is cricket.

Sri Lanka's schools and colleges regularly organise sports and athletics teams, competing on provincial and national levels.

The Sri Lanka national cricket team achieved considerable success beginning in the s, rising from underdog status to winning the Cricket World Cup.

Former Sri Lankan off-spinner Muttiah Muralitharan has been rated as the greatest Test match bowler ever by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack , [] and four Sri Lankan cricketers ranked 2nd Sangakkara , 4th Jayasuriya , 5th Jayawardene and 11th Dilshan highest ODI run scorers of all time, which is the second best by a team.

Sri Lanka has won the Asia Cup in , [] , [] , [] [] and Sri Lankans have won two medals at Olympic Games , one silver, by Duncan White at London Olympics for men's metres hurdles [] and one silver by Susanthika Jayasinghe at Sydney Olympics for women's metres.

Aquatic sports such as boating, surfing, swimming, kitesurfing [] and scuba diving on the coast, the beaches and backwaters attract many Sri Lankans and foreign tourists.

There are two styles of martial arts native to Sri Lanka, Cheena di and Angampora. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Ceylon disambiguation. For the American alternative rock band, see Sri Lanka band.

Island country in South Asia. Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. Website www. Main article: Names of Sri Lanka.

Main article: History of Sri Lanka. Main article: Prehistory of Sri Lanka. Main articles: Pre Anuradhapura period and Anuradhapura period.

Main articles: Polonnaruwa period and Transitional period of Sri Lanka. Main article: Kandyan period.

Main article: History of Sri Lanka —present. Main article: Geography of Sri Lanka. Main article: Politics of Sri Lanka. Bay of Bengal. Palk Strait.

Northern Province. Gulf of Mannar. North Central Province. North Western Province. Eastern Province. Central Province.

Uva Province. Western Province. Sabaragamuwa Province. Southern Province. Indian Ocean. Main article: Administrative divisions of Sri Lanka.

Main article: Economy of Sri Lanka. Main article: Demographics of Sri Lanka. Main article: Languages of Sri Lanka. Hinduism Islam 9.

Christian 7. Others 0. Main article: Religion in Sri Lanka. Main article: List of cities in Sri Lanka. Main article: Health in Sri Lanka.

Main article: Education in Sri Lanka. Main article: Transport in Sri Lanka. Main article: Culture of Sri Lanka. Main article: Sport in Sri Lanka.

Sri Lanka portal. Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 30 October Department of Census and Statistics — Sri Lanka. Archived from the original PDF on 6 December Retrieved 15 July International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 8 December World Bank. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 December Carnegie Mellon University.

Urbanization and sustainability in Asia: case studies of good practice. Simon and Schuster. Sri Lanka and the silk road of the sea.

Retrieved 14 August Retrieved on 18 November Archived from the original on 14 September Retrieved 14 September Retrieved 29 October Sri Lanka.

Marshall Cavendish. Senaveratna The story of the Sinhalese from the most ancient times up to the end of "the Mahavansa" or Great dynasty.

Asian Educational Services. Encyclopedia of the world's minorities. Art of the Imperial Cholas. Columbia University Press.

Retrieved 15 August Asia Times. Archived from the original on 22 April Archived from the original on 31 May International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences.

XIII U. Congress Proceedings — Forli, 8—14 September The Prehistory of Sri Lanka. Colombo : Department of Archaeological Survey.

Ramayana at a Glance. Motilal Banarsidass. Ancient Ceylon. The Sunday Observer. Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 20 October The Mahavamsa.

Archived from the original on 7 January In Buswell, Robert E. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Macmillan Reference. Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 15 July Archived from the original on 8 August Story of Sigiriya.

Melboune: Panique Pty Ltd. Sigiriya: City, Palace, and Royal Gardens. Vikas Publishing House. Artibus Asiae Publishers.

Trafford Publishing. Parakramabahu 1 further extended the system to the highest resplendent peak of hydraulic civilization of the country's history.

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. His [Parakramabahu's] reign is described by Tumour as having been the most martial, enterprising, and glorious in Singhalese history.

International Lake Environment Committee. Archived from the original on 5 June Archived from the original on 4 February Security dilemma of a small state, Part 1.

His invasion in was more or less a looting expedition.. A Critical History of Jaffna. New Delhi : Asian Educational Services.

Oxford University Press. Geoff Wade, Retrieved 13 April National Geographic. Columbia University. Archived from the original on 31 October Archived from the original on 20 June Archived from the original on 12 April Thondaman Foundation.

Karalliyadde — The Island. An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon. London: Reprint. The Dutch in Ceylon: an account of their early visits to the island, their conquests, and their rule over the maritime regions during a century and a half.

Being "Dutch" in the Indies: a history of creolisation and empire, — University of Michigan. The Sunday Times. University of Michigan Press. Archived from the original on 2 November Economic policy in Sri Lanka: Issues and debates.

Wimalaratne, K. Mills Ceylon Under British Rule, —

Sri Lanka Rundreise. 11 Reisetage inkl. Halbpension; Jeep Safari in 2 Nationalparks! Einmalige Gelegenheit - Badeferienverlängerung am Strand von Bentota. Vessel of unknown type V LANKA NET 5 is currently located at unknown area at position 1° 33' " N, 57° 50' " E as reported by MarineTraffic. Sri Lanka: Gasthäuser. Tolle Auswahl und fantastische Preise für Lodges auf Sri Lanka. Lesen Sie Bewertungen zu Gasthäusern und wählen Sie das beste. Wichtige Dokumente. Juli | ARC – Asylum Research Centre. Sri Lanka. Länderbericht (historischer Überblick; Rechenschaftspflicht für Verbrechen gegen. l zabadoo.be l zabadoo.be l zabadoo.be l www.​zabadoo.be l zabadoo.be Reiseforen l zabadoo.be l. Wenn Sie über uns gebucht haben und eine Gästebewertung hinterlegen möchten, melden Sie sich bitte in Ihrem Konto an. Kandy 14 Gasthäuser. Analytische Cookies Cookies, die messen, wie unsere Seite genutzt wird. Die Früchte und Kokosnüsse reifen so natürlich, wie möglich auf kleinen Tennis Punkte ZГ¤hlen ohne Pestizide, Kunstdünger und frei von Gentechnologie. Unbestrittenes Highlight Bentotas ist der herrliche Sandstrand. Lage : In einer schönen Gartenanlage mit Palmen am endlos langen Sandstrand von Bentota zur einen Seite, auf der anderen Seite verläuft Beste Spielothek in RГ¶thlake finden Mündung des gleichnamigen Flusses.

Comedy Miscellaneous Religious Programs. Lifestyle Political Sports. Live Programs Reality Shows Technology. Sihini 72 - Deweni Inima - Aya Teledrama - Ras - Straight Drive BIG Focus Akuru Maki Ne 23 - Live at 8 - Sri Lanka is home to over types of resident birds see List.

It has declared several bird sanctuaries including Kumana. Sri Lanka is the oldest democracy in Asia. In , the Soulbury Commission was appointed to draft a new constitution.

During this time, struggle for independence was fought on "constitutionalist" lines under the leadership of D. The Soulbury constitution ushered in Dominion status and granted independence to Sri Lanka in As of July , the number of registered political parties in the country is The UNP, established by D.

Senanayake in , was until recently the largest single political party. Ponnambalam , the Tamil nationalist counterpart of S.

Objecting to Ponnambalam's cooperation with D. Senanayake, a dissident group led by S. Following a period of turbulence as Tamil militants rose to power in the late s, these Tamil political parties were succeeded in October by the Tamil National Alliance.

Sri Lanka is a democratic republic and a unitary state which is governed by a semi-presidential system , with a mixture of a presidential system and a parliamentary system.

The amendment of certain basic features such as the clauses on language, religion, and reference to Sri Lanka as a unitary state require both a two-thirds majority and approval in a nationwide referendum.

For administrative purposes, Sri Lanka is divided into nine provinces [] and twenty-five districts. Provinces There have been provinces in Sri Lanka since the 19th century, but they had no legal status until when the 13th Amendment to the constitution established provincial councils after several decades of increasing demand for a decentralisation of the Government of Sri Lanka.

Some of its functions had been undertaken by central government ministries, departments, corporations, and statutory authorities, [] but authority over land and police is not as a rule given to provincial councils.

Now each province is administered by a directly elected provincial council:. Districts and local authorities Sri Lanka is also divided into 25 districts.

The districts are further subdivided into divisional secretariats , and these, in turn, to approximately 14, Grama Niladhari divisions. A government agent , who is known as District Secretary , administers a district.

There are three other types of local authorities: Municipal Councils 18 , Urban councils 13 and Pradeshiya Sabha, also called Pradesha Sabhai These Divisional Secretariats are currently administered by a 'Divisional Secretary'.

While ensuring that it maintains its independence, Sri Lanka has cultivated relations with India. One of the two parties that have governed Sri Lanka since its independence, the United National Party , has traditionally favoured links with the West, while its left-leaning counterpart, the Sri Lanka Freedom Party , has favoured links with the East.

The two countries signed an important Rice-Rubber Pact in The Bandaranaike government of significantly changed the pro-western policies set by the previous UNP government.

It recognised Cuba under Fidel Castro in Since independence in , the primary focus of the armed forces has been internal security, crushing three major insurgencies, two by Marxist militants of the JVP and a year-long conflict with the LTTE.

The armed forces have been in a continuous mobilised state for the last 30 years. The Sri Lankan Armed Forces have engaged in United Nations peacekeeping operations since the early s, contributing forces to permanent contingents deployed in several UN peacekeeping missions in Chad , Lebanon , and Haiti.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, Sri Lanka became a plantation economy famous for its production and export of cinnamon , rubber , and Ceylon tea , which remains a trademark national export.

Colonial plantations were dismantled, industries were nationalised, and a welfare state established.

In , the free market economy was introduced to the country incorporating privatisation , deregulation , and the promotion of private enterprise.

While the production and export of tea, rubber, coffee, sugar, and other commodities remain important, industrialisation has increased the importance of food processing , textiles , telecommunications , and finance.

The country's main economic sectors are tourism , tea export , clothing , rice production, and other agricultural products. In addition to these economic sectors, overseas employment, especially in the Middle East , contributes substantially in foreign exchange.

The per capita income of Sri Lanka has doubled since The Global Competitiveness Report , published by the World Economic Forum , has described Sri Lanka's economy as transitioning from the factor-driven stage to the efficiency-driven stage and that it ranks 52nd in global competitiveness.

Sri Lanka ranks 5th in the World Giving Index , registering high levels of contentment and charitable behaviour in its society.

Sri Lanka's road network consists of 35 A-Grade highways and two controlled-access highways E01 and E The port at Trincomalee is the fifth largest natural harbour in the world; during World War II, the British stated that they could place their entire navy in the harbour with room to spare.

With a grant of 20 million dollars from the US and help from China, a space academy has been set up for the purpose of developing an indigenous space sector to launch satellites of other nations as well as of Sri Lanka.

This dual use of launching technology will also serve to develop missile technology. On 26 September China launched Sri Lanka's first satellite, with plans for more launches in the coming years.

Since early , domestic debt increased by 12 percent and external debt by 25 percent. The agency's evaluation for the first tranche was cautiously optimistic about the future.

Under the program Sri Lankan government implemented a new Inland Revenue Act and an automatic fuel pricing formula which were noted by the IMF in its fourth review.

Sri Lanka is the 57th most populated nation in the world, [5] with roughly 21,, people, and an annual population growth rate of 1.

Sri Lanka has a birth rate of Sinhalese constitute the largest ethnic group in the country, with Sri Lankan Tamils are the second major ethnic group in the island, with a percentage of Sri Lankan Moors comprise 9.

Tamils of Indian origin were brought into the country as indentured labourers by British colonists to work on estate plantations.

There are also small ethnic groups such as the Burghers of mixed European descent and Malays from Southeast Asia. Moreover, there is a small population of Vedda people who are believed to be the original indigenous group to inhabit the island.

Sinhala and Tamil are the two official languages of Sri Lanka. English is widely used for education, scientific and commercial purposes.

Members of the Burgher community speak variant forms of Portuguese Creole and Dutch with varying proficiency, while members of the Malay community speak a form of Creole Malay that is unique to the island.

Religion in Sri Lanka census [] []. Sri Lanka is a multi-religious country. Sri Lanka has the longest continuous history of Buddhism of any predominantly Buddhist nation, [] with the Sangha having existed in a largely unbroken lineage since its introduction in the 2nd century BCE.

During periods of decline, the Sri Lankan monastic lineage was revived through contact with Thailand and Burma.

Hinduism is the second most prevalent religion in Sri Lanka and predates Buddhism. Islam is the third most prevalent religion in the country, having first been brought to the island by Arab traders over the course of many centuries, starting around the 7th century CE.

Most Muslims are Sunni who follow the Shafi'i school. Christianity reached the country through Western colonists in the early 16th century. Sri Lankan Tamil Catholics attribute their religious heritage to St.

Francis Xavier as well as Portuguese missionaries. The remaining Christians are evenly split between the Anglican Church of Ceylon and other Protestant denominations.

There is also a small population of Zoroastrian immigrants from India Parsis who settled in Ceylon during the period of British rule, [] but this community has steadily dwindled in recent years.

The Buddhist majority observe Poya Days each month according to the Lunar calendar , and Hindus and Muslims also observe their own holidays.

Colombo Kandy. Galle Jaffna. Sri Lankans have a life expectancy of The universal "pro-poor" [] health care system adopted by the country has contributed much towards these figures.

Sri Lanka ranks first among southeast Asian countries with respect to commitment of suicide , with 33 deaths per , persons.

According to the Department of Census and Statistics, poverty, destructive pastimes and inability to cope with stressful situations, are the main causes behind the high suicide rates.

With a literacy rate of The free education system established in , [] is a result of the initiative of C. Kannangara and A. Kannangara led the establishment of the Madhya Maha Vidyalayas Central Schools in different parts of the country in order to provide education to Sri Lanka's rural children.

However, in the s changes to this system saw the separation of the administration of schools between the central government and the provincial government.

Thus the elite National Schools are controlled directly by the Ministry of Education and the provincial schools by the provincial government.

Sri Lanka has approximately government schools, private schools and Pirivenas. Sri Lanka has 15 public universities.

The late British science fiction author Arthur C. Sri Lanka has an extensive road network for inland transportation.

E-grade highways are the latest addition to Sri Lanka's road network. A and B grade roads are national arterial highways administered by Road Development Authority.

The other roads are local roads falling under local government authorities. The rail network of Sri Lanka consists of main lines, coastal lines, and up-country lines.

The Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation formerly Radio Ceylon is the oldest-running radio station in Asia, [] established in by Edward Harper just three years after broadcasting began in Europe.

Since the s, many private radio stations have also been introduced. Broadcast television was introduced to the country in when the Independent Television Network was launched.

Initially, all Television stations were state-controlled, but private television networks began broadcasts in As of [update] , 51 newspapers 30 Sinhala, 10 Tamil, 11 English are published and 34 TV stations and 52 radio stations are in operation.

Officially, the constitution of Sri Lanka guarantees human rights as ratified by the United Nations. A report by an advisory panel to the UN secretary-general has accused both the LTTE and the Sri Lankan government of alleged war crimes during final stages of the civil war.

The UN Human Rights Council has documented over 12, named individuals who have undergone disappearance after detention by security forces in Sri Lanka, the second highest figure in the world since the Working Group came into being in Allegations of human rights abuses have not ended with the close of the ethnic conflict.

After her visit, she said: "The war may have ended [in Sri Lanka], but in the meantime democracy has been undermined and the rule of law eroded.

She also said that, while in Sri Lanka, she had been allowed to go wherever she wanted, but that Sri Lankans who came to meet her were harassed and intimidated by security forces.

In , the UK charity Freedom from Torture reported that it had received referrals of torture survivors from Sri Lanka for clinical treatment or other services provided by the charity.

In the same year, Freedom from Torture published Out of the Silence , which documents evidence of torture in Sri Lanka and demonstrates that the practice has continued long after the end of the civil war in May On 29 July , Human Rights Watch said that the Sri Lanka government has targeted lawyers, human rights defenders, and journalists to suppress criticism against government.

The culture of Sri Lanka dates back over years. In more recent times, the British colonial culture has also influenced the locals. Sri Lanka claims a democratic tradition matched by few other developing countries.

The first Tamil immigration was probably around the 3rd century BC. The rich cultural traditions shared by all Sri Lankan cultures is the basis of the country's long life expectancy, advanced health standards and high literacy rate.

Dishes include rice and curry, pittu , kiribath , wholemeal roti , string hoppers , wattalapam a rich pudding of Malay origin made of coconut milk , jaggery, cashew nuts , eggs, and spices including cinnamon and nutmeg , kottu , and hoppers.

Traditionally food is served on a plantain leaf or lotus leaf. Middle Eastern influences and practices are found in traditional Moor dishes, while Dutch and Portuguese influences are found with the island's Burgher community preserving their culture through traditional dishes such as Lamprais rice cooked in stock and baked in a banana leaf , Breudher Dutch Holiday Biscuit , and Bolo Fiado Portuguese-style layer cake.

Christians celebrate Christmas on 25 December to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ and Easter to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus.

The movie Kadawunu Poronduwa The broken promise , produced by S. Ranmuthu Duwa Island of treasures, marked the transition cinema from black-and-white to colour.

It in the recent years has featured subjects such as family melodrama , social transformation and the years of conflict between the military and the LTTE.

In , movie attendance rose to an all-time high, but has been in steady decline since then. An influential filmmaker is Lester James Peiris , who has directed a number of movies which led to global acclaim, including Rekava Line of destiny, , Gamperaliya The changing village, , Nidhanaya The treasure, and Golu Hadawatha Cold heart, His work is published in Sinhala and English.

Similarly, naturalised - Canadian Michael Ondaatje , is well known for his English-language novels and three films.

The earliest music in Sri Lanka came from theatrical performances such as Kolam , Sokari and Nadagam. The first music album, Nurthi , recorded in , was released through Radio Ceylon founded in There are three main styles of Sri Lankan classical dance.

They are, the Kandyan dances , low country dances and Sabaragamuwa dances. Of these, the Kandyan style, which flourished under kings of the Kingdom of Kandy , is more prominent.

It is a sophisticated form of dance, [] that consists of five sub-categories: Ves dance , Naiyandi dance , Udekki dance , Pantheru dance and 18 Vannam.

The history of Sri Lankan painting and sculpture can be traced as far back as to the 2nd or 3rd century BC.

The chronicles have description of various paintings in relic-chambers of Buddhist stupas, and in monastic residence.

Theatre moved into the country when a Parsi theatre company from Mumbai introduced Nurti , a blend of European and Indian theatrical conventions to the Colombo audience in the 19th century.

Sri Lankan literature spans at least two millennia, and is heir to the Aryan literary tradition as embodied in the hymns of the Rigveda. According to the German philosopher Wilhelm Geiger , the chronicles are based on Sinhala Atthakatha commentary , that dates few more centuries back.

Martin Wickramasinghe , the author of Madol Doova is considered the iconic figure of Sri Lankan literature.

While the national sport in Sri Lanka is volleyball , by far the most popular sport in the country is cricket.

Sri Lanka's schools and colleges regularly organise sports and athletics teams, competing on provincial and national levels. The Sri Lanka national cricket team achieved considerable success beginning in the s, rising from underdog status to winning the Cricket World Cup.

Former Sri Lankan off-spinner Muttiah Muralitharan has been rated as the greatest Test match bowler ever by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack , [] and four Sri Lankan cricketers ranked 2nd Sangakkara , 4th Jayasuriya , 5th Jayawardene and 11th Dilshan highest ODI run scorers of all time, which is the second best by a team.

Sri Lanka has won the Asia Cup in , [] , [] , [] [] and Sri Lankans have won two medals at Olympic Games , one silver, by Duncan White at London Olympics for men's metres hurdles [] and one silver by Susanthika Jayasinghe at Sydney Olympics for women's metres.

Aquatic sports such as boating, surfing, swimming, kitesurfing [] and scuba diving on the coast, the beaches and backwaters attract many Sri Lankans and foreign tourists.

There are two styles of martial arts native to Sri Lanka, Cheena di and Angampora. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Ceylon disambiguation. For the American alternative rock band, see Sri Lanka band. Island country in South Asia.

Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. Website www. Main article: Names of Sri Lanka. Main article: History of Sri Lanka. Main article: Prehistory of Sri Lanka.

Main articles: Pre Anuradhapura period and Anuradhapura period. Main articles: Polonnaruwa period and Transitional period of Sri Lanka.

Main article: Kandyan period. Main article: History of Sri Lanka —present. Main article: Geography of Sri Lanka. Main article: Politics of Sri Lanka.

Bay of Bengal. Palk Strait. Northern Province. Gulf of Mannar. North Central Province. North Western Province. Eastern Province.

Central Province. Uva Province. Western Province. Sabaragamuwa Province. Southern Province. Indian Ocean. Main article: Administrative divisions of Sri Lanka.

Main article: Economy of Sri Lanka. Main article: Demographics of Sri Lanka. Main article: Languages of Sri Lanka.

Hinduism Islam 9. Christian 7. Others 0. Main article: Religion in Sri Lanka. Main article: List of cities in Sri Lanka. Main article: Health in Sri Lanka.

Main article: Education in Sri Lanka. Main article: Transport in Sri Lanka. Main article: Culture of Sri Lanka. Main article: Sport in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka portal.

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XIII U. Sri Lankan News. Net's News Release Publishing Service provides a medium for circulating your organization's news. Net - Mainstream Media Ltd.

All rights reserved. Wed, 05 Aug Sri Lanka News. Scott Morrison's 'daggy dad' facade is a lesson in hypocrisy Sri Lankan News.

Xinhua world news summary at GMT, Aug. Rajapaksa brothers to get strong support in Sri Lanka polls General. New Parliament to meet on August 20 Ada Derana.

Sri Lankas coronavirus case tally jumps to 2, Ada Derana. Polling stations disinfected before election Ada Derana.

Sri Lanka makes wearing face mask mandatory for legislators in parliament Sri Lankan News. Detained 'drug smuggler' cat escapes Sri Lanka prison General Sources.

A glance at Sri Lanka and its parliamentary elections General. Singapore to make travellers wear electronic tags to enforce quarantine Ada Derana.

Delivering ballot boxes to polling stations underway Ada Derana. Sub-Inspector arrested over involvement in evidence fabrication Ada Derana.

Heavy rainfall expected in several provinces Ada Derana. International News Access More. Trump cracks down on federal agencies using foreign labor Sri Lankan News.

Scores dead and injured after suicide bombing at Afghan prison Sri Lankan News.

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